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For other uses, see Broccoli (disambiguation).
Broccoli, Calabrese cultivarSpeciesBrassica oleraceaCultivar GroupItalica GroupOriginFrom Italy (2,000 years ago)Broccoli (from the Italian plural of broccolo, referring to "the flowering top of a cabbage") is a plant of the cabbage familyBrassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae).
It is classified as a cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli possesses abundant arboreal, flower heads, usuallygreen in color, arranged in a tree-like fashion on branches sprouting from a thick, edible, sturdy, stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by lavish leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species, but broccoli is green while cauliflower can appear in purple and yellow in addition to the traditional white variety.
- 1 History
- 2 Uses
- 3 Varieties
- 4 Production
- 5 Gallery
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Uses Culinary Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed, but may be eaten raw and has become popular as a raw vegetable in hors-d'oeuvre trays. Although boiling has been shown to reduce the levels of suspected anticancer compounds in broccoli, other preparation methods such as steaming, microwaving, and stir-frying have not been shown to reduce the presence of these compounds.
Nutritional and medicinal Broccoli, raw (edible parts), 100g
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy 30 kcal 140 kJCarbohydrates 6.64 g- Sugars 1.7 g- Dietary fiber 2.6 g Fat0.37 gProtein2.82 gWater89.30gVitamin A equiv. 31 μg 3%- beta-carotene 361 μg 3%Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.071 mg 5%Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.117 mg 8%Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.639 mg 4%Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.573 mg 11%Vitamin B6 0.175 mg13%Folate (Vit. B9) 63 μg 16%Vitamin C 89.2 mg149%Calcium 47 mg5%Iron 0.73 mg6%Magnesium 21 mg6% Phosphorus 66 mg9%Potassium 316 mg 7%Zinc 0.41 mg4%Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient databaseBroccoli is high in vitamins C, K, and A, as well as dietary fiber; it also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties, such as diindolylmethane and small amounts of selenium. A single serving provides more than 30 mg of Vitamin C and a half-cup provides 52 mg of Vitamin C. The 3,3'-Diindolylmethane found in broccoli is a potent modulator of the innate immune response system with anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity. Broccoli also contains the compound glucoraphanin, which can be processed into an anticancer compound sulforaphane, though the benefits of broccoli are greatly reduced if the vegetable is boiled more than ten minutes. A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Broccoli consumption has also shown that it is beneficial in the prevention of heart disease.
 Varieties There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is sometimes called calabrese in Great Britain and simply "broccoli" in North America. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks and is named after Calabria in Italy. It is a cool season annual crop.
Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. It is planted in May to be harvested during the winter or early the following year in temperate climates. The heirloom variety "calabrese" available in North America is of this type.
Romanesco broccoli has a distinctive fractal appearance of its heads, and is yellow-green in colour. It is technically in the Botrytis (cauliflower) cultivar group.
Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli sold in southern Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds.
Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower (Botrytis Group), kale and collard greens(Acephala Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), and Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group). Chinese broccoli (Alboglabra Group) is also a cultivar group of Brassica oleracea. 
Cauliflower and broccoli output in 2005
In North America, production is primarily in California. The seasonal average f.o.b. shipping-poit price for cauliflower in 2004 was $33.00 per 100 pounds ($0.73/kg) according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA.
Top Ten cauliflowers and broccoli Producers — 11 June 2008CountryProduction (Tonnes)Footnote People's Republic of China8585000F India5014500
France370000F Mexico305000F Poland277200
Pakistan209000F United Kingdom186400
World19107751ANo symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate(may include official, semi-official or estimates);
Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Devision
[Cultivation Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit (18 to 23 degrees Celsius).
Extreme close-up of broccoli florets.
Two broccoli heads.
Romanesco broccoli, showing fractal forms
Sicilian Purple Broccoli
Broccoli in flower
A basket of broccoli displayed in a Singaporesupermarket
- ^ Buck, P. A.. "Origin and Taxonomy of Broccoli". Department of Food Technology, University of California.http://www.springerlink.com/content/ert85x3082740212/fulltext.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- ^ Stephens, James. "Broccoli — Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group)". University of Florida. pp. 1. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MV031. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- ^ "broccoli". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). p. 156. ISBN 9780877798095. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/broccoli. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- ^ a b Murray, Michael; Lara Pizzorno (September 2005). The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group. pp. 172. ISBN 9780743480529. http://books.google.com/books?id=LLFLfbiWpqgC&pg=PA172&dq=History+of+broccoli#v=onepage&q=History%20of%20broccoli&f=false.
- ^ a b Nonnecke, Ib (November 1989). Vegetable Production. Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. pp. 394. ISBN 9780442267216.http://books.google.com/books?id=H7i8QJw8BJsC&pg=PA394&dq=History+of+broccoli#v=onepage&q=History%20of%20broccoli&f=false.
- ^ a b Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick (2007-05-15). "Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties". http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/research_says_boiling/.
- ^ "WHFoods: Broccoli". George Mateljan Foundation. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=9. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
- ^ Understanding Nutrition, Eleanor N. Whitney and Eva M. N. Hamilton, Table H, supplement, page 373 Table 1, ISBN 0-8299-0419-0
- ^ "Diindolylmethane Information Resource Center at the University of California, Berkeley". http://www.diindolylmethane.org. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
- ^ "Diindolylmethane Immune Activation Data Center".http://www.activamune.com/diindolylmethane_dim_immune_activation_data_center.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
- ^ Kirsh, VA; Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB (2007). "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99 (15): 1200–9.doi:10.1093/jnci/djm065. PMID 17652276.
- ^ Clout, Laura (5 September 2009). "Broccoli beats heart disease". Daily Express.http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/125136/Broccoli-beats-heart-disease. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- ^ Dixon, G.R. (2007). Vegetable brassicas and related crucifers. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 9780851993959.
- ^ Smith, Powell (June 1999). "HGIC 1301 Broccoli". Clemson University.http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/plants/vegetables/crops/hgic1301.html. Retrieved 25 August 2009.